1)Timeline of Hooliganism==

-Soccer and violence has a long history with another. It was traced back to at least the 14th century in England. In 1324 Edward ll banned soccer because he was scared about the disorder surrounding matches might lead to social unrest or treason. • The first real recorded instance though happened in the 1880´s in England: gangs of supporters would intimidate neighborhoods, attack referees and opposing supporters of the rival team. -1885 the first victim of Hooliganism lost conscious when was beat up. At a friendly match between Preston North End and Aston Villa -1886 Preston fans fought Queen´s Park fans in a railway station -and 1905 the first fans were tried for hooliganism (also a 70 year old drunk lady)-between the two world wars there were no recorded instances of hooliganism even though a stadium was closed in 1920, 1934 and 1950 after crowd disturbances -In the late 1950´s it started to attract media attention because it Hooliganism re-ermerged in Latin America. (hier vll nochmal recherchieren warum das wg Südamerika wieder auftrat, hat die Dulmage mich auch gefragt) And by the 1960´s an average of 25 hooligan incidents were being reported each year in England. • in the 1970´s and the 1980´s the subculture of Hooligansim peeked. In the late 1980´s a report of an internal english soccer comittee stated that „football may not be able to continue in its present form much longer“

Why Subculture?

Subculture because instead of their working class skinhead-style clothes which identified them as a Hooligan to the police the firm members start to wear designer clothes and expensive sportswear. Prada and Burberry for example withdrew some of their clothes because of fear their label is going to be attached to Hooliganism. They also started to use the internet as a base of their community. They set up fights and provoke rival gangs into brawls. Sometimes fight participants post live commentaries on the Internet.

What is Hooliganism?Bearbeiten

Has no legal definition, but one can take the information and put it to one. • Hooligans mainly support a soccer club of their choice and use soccer society to start fights with other soccer fans about the sport. An opponent does not have to do anything else, than being fan of a different team. This is reason enough to brutally go after the other one. • It used to spontaneously erupt at the stadium or surrounding streets. Though in the last decades they tend to chose a location away from the stadia so they wont be in touch with the police and be arrested. The supporters of two rival teams pre arrange their fights far before or after the game. • Hooligans are organized as a firm. A firm belongs to a certain soccer team. But it is not to be said, that the soccer teams support the soccer firms! The only reason why a soccer firm is formed is to oppose and physically attack supporters of other club. The threatening of players and referees is also be known of. It is even possible, that some firms have a more political view (from far left or far right) and the soccer world is their plattform to take out those statements.

„You´ll never walk alone“ tragic moments in Hooliganism Bearbeiten

● On May 20th 1985 during the European Cup Final between Liverpool and Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels 39 Juventus fans were killed; until today it is known as the Heysel Stadium Disaster. The Ultras of Liverpool and Juventus were actually seated in the opposite end of the stadium. Though Liverpool fans crushed a fence and attacked the Italian fans. The majority of whom were with families rather than ultras. Many Italians managed to escape but while trying to flee over a wall it collapsed under the weight of the panicing fans and burried 39 Juventus Fans. English Clubs were banned from all European competitions until 1990, with Liverpool banned for an additional year. That had a huge impact on English Soccer because a lot of players, referees and trainers moved to other European countries to be part of the Europe League. 20 years after the Disaster in Heysel, in 2005, Liverpool and Juventus were rival teams in the quarter-finals of the 2005 Champions League. Before kickoff Liverpool Fans held up placards to form a banner saying „friendship“ on Italian.“ The English soccer, which was very succesful before this disaster might have recovered around the year 2008 when the English League returned to the top of the UEFA list. Therefore the recovery from the Heysel Stadium Disaster took English soccer a period of 23 years. ● On April 15th 1989 during a FA Cup Semi Final between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest at Sheffield´s Stadium in England 96 people were crushed to death; until today it remains the deadliest soccer disaster in English soccer history. It is not really due to Hooliganism that this disaster went down but more about the failure of the English police. Anyways afterwards it had an political impact on the soccer future in England. Therefore it is important to also know this event to understand the political changes in a bigger view. !There was certainly a lot more Hooliganism in England but it would take to long to explain every violent act. By the way: !1988 41 people were arrested after rioting; !1995 50 people were injured during a match between England and Ireland; !1996 a russian teeanager was stabbed in Brighton after England´s defeat to Germany in the Euro Finals, because the English thought the boy would be German. !1998 in France 100 English Fans were arrested because they attacked North African locals of Marseille; !-2006: 200 suspected hooligans were prevenatative arrested and 400 taken into preventative custody (police believe that one average each rioter consumed 17 litres of beer) ● 2010 during the FIFA World Cup a German flag was burned as well as the damage to a Haagen Daz restaurant; and a year ago in dec 2010 14 people got injured during a soccer game in England: that took place less than 24 hours before England failed to host the Soccer World Cup in 2018.

!In 2009 and 2010 season soccer hooliganism rose dramatically with 103 incidents involving under 19´s compared to 38 the season before. ●it is said that the rise of soccer hooliganism was due to the result of rising unemployment, poverty, and social discontent in the aftermath of the recent recession. (((As we already heart in last weeks presentation the English class is determined of the birth.)))

Political ImpactBearbeiten

-Magaret Tatcher, UK Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, made a high profile public call for the country´s soccer hooligans to be given prison stentences to act as an example to others. -Football Spectators Act after the Hillsboroug Disaster: An Act to control the admission of spectators at designated football matches in England and Wales by means of a national membership scheme and licences to admit spectators; to provide for the safety of spectators at such matches by means of such licences and the conferment of functions on the licensing authority in relation to safety certificates for grounds at which such matches are played; and to provide for the making by courts and the enforcement of orders imposing restrictions on persons convicted of certain offences for the purpose of preventing violence or disorder at or in connection with designated football matches played outside England and Wales.[16th November 1989] -After the Hillborough Disaster there no longer existed standing sections in soccer stadium. Since that day they are only seats in every English and Scottish stadiums to avoid another mass panic and also Hooligans to storm other parts of the stadium by using the power of mass times power. ● Tatchers minister for sport attempted to bring in an ID card scheme for soccer supporters which would be checked elecrtonically of any incidents.

Media in HooliganismBearbeiten

The importance of the media in Hooliganism is an interesting aspect on the topic. Some people claim that the media helped construct the public´s understanding and view of the phenonemen. When saying that Hooliganism peeked in the 70´s and 80´s one has to have in mind that the tabloid press created a widespread panic over soccer hooliganism that was completely disproportionate to the actual extent of the problem.