Newfoundland – a distinct society?Bearbeiten

General facts:

Population: 510.900

Area: 405.720 sq km

Capital: St John’s

Location: part of the most eastern Canadian province “Newfoundland and Labrador”


- Newfoundland & Labrador was the first area of America’s Atlantic coastline which was explored by the Europeans (Vikings in 1001)

- 1497: British explorer John Cabot claimed land as a British colony (under King Henry VIII) but no permanent settlement -> only for fishing and trading

- Newfoundland became Britain’s colony in North America

- 1610: first British colony established

o Immigrants from Europe relied on exporting of fish

o They were isolated from the mainland of Canada and the US

o Native tribe “Beothucks” had at first good relations with settlers, later distrust and persecution -> in 1823 only 13 of them left -> none by 1829

- Also French settlements -> French keep destroying British settlements -> harsh conflict

- Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 -> France gives up Newfoundland and Acadia to England -> French population moved to Nova Scotia

- After 1760: main migrations from England and Ireland -> created basic population mix

- 1774: Newfoundland became part of Quebec

- 1809: Labrador was transferred to Newfoundland

- 1832: Newfoundland was granted a Representative Government & St John’s was established as provincial capital

- In early 20th century: Newfoundland was often used from aviation pioneers and pilots who wished to cross the Atlantic Ocean -> also by Amelia Earhart, first woman who completed a solo transatlantic solo flight in 1932

- 1949: Newfoundland became the 10th and last province of Canada

- 2001: Province ‘s name was changed into “Newfoundland and Labrador”


- Most important languages: English (main language), French and Innu-aimun

- spoken English in Newfoundland contains many non-standard linguistic features (pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, meanings, expressions)

- Newfoundland could preserve older English variants and developed own dialects through the time due to its isolated location and the basically not existing connection to the mainland in former times

- Irish Gaelic loanwords like “scrob” for “scratch”

- French is still spoken on Port-au-Port peninsular (also bilingual schooling)

- Innu-aimun used by vast majority of Innu families at home & even first language in their communities -> English as second language taught at school to guarantee the communication outside the community

- Mi’Kmaq: still spoken in some communities (southern area of Newfoundland) -> try to preserving Mi’Kmaq traditions, culture, history

- Languages & dialects which were spoken but disappeared:

o Scots Gaelic (exception: some traditional tales/songs)

o Beothuk


- Newfoundland and Labrador is the only province in Canada with a major Protestant population (60%)

o Largest Protestant groups: Anglican Church & United Church

- Second largest group: Roman Catholic (37%)

- Others: Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh

Ethnic diversity:

- the most homogeneous population of European origin in Canada

- Relatively small number of immigrants after the major settlements from Britain (17th-19th century)

- Majority of present-day inhabitants are descendents from immigrants from southwestern England & southeastern Ireland

- By 1930s, more than 95% of the population were native born

- French people arrived during the 19th century

- French & Mi’kmaq people try to preserve their language, culture & traditions since the 1970s

- Mid-19th century: small number of Highland Scots immigrated

- Very few Chinese& Lebanese Christians immigrants came in early 20th century (only men)

o Both communities suffered official & unofficial discrimination but successfully settled in nevertheless

o Chinese women not allowed until 1949

o Chinese opened laundries and restaurants : now, even though in small numbers, significant part of society

- Since 1949: small numbers of people of other ethnic backgrounds migrated -> partly due to the Memorial University

People & Economy:

- over half the population lives in fishing villages along the coast, other half in cities and towns

- Reliant on natural resources (Mining, oil production, fishing, logging)

Can Newfoundland be finally seen as a distinct society?

- Pro:

o Rather separated, isolated location -> most easterly part of Canada & island

o Long history of mainly French & British settlements

o Fewer immigrants from different locations than on the mainland

o More homogeneous than mainland Canada

o Language is more preserved and more bound to British/ Irish and developed local dialects and varieties

o Protestant religion is more popular than Catholic religion (vice versa on the mainland)

o Still surviving communities of Mi’kmaq native people and few other Inuit tribes

o Less industrialization than on the mainland -> main focus on fishing

o Own Time zone: Newfoundland is one hour ahead of neighbor province Quebec and even Labrador

o Impressive and unique landscape with the “iceberg alley”

- Contra:

o Was also a British Colony

o Main spoken language: English

o Similar cultural aspects & celebrations due to similar religion (holidays, Christmas etc)

o Quebec, even though main language is French, is also still part of Canada

o Christian belief is shared by majority of inhabitants (even though division of Protestants & Catholics is different)






· Lonely Planet „Nova Scotia, New brunswick & Prince Edward Island“

o Chapter Newfoundland & Labrador

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!

Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.

Auch bei FANDOM

Zufälliges Wiki